Race-work, Race-love

To My Tayta, with Love.

In Uncategorized on July 4, 2014 at 5:21 pm

Dad2

 

Tayta – Quichua word for “Father” – I wrote this about my father a couple of years ago and I refer back to this post on Father’s Day and my dad’s birthday.

While I don’t tend to read “lists” or “rules” this particular list attracted my attention. The rules were written from a father reflecting on how he raised his daughter (you can read the post here). When I read these rules, I kept thinking how true some of these are about my SuperDaddy. While my father taught me more than I could ever fit into a list, these particularly stand out for me. I am who I am because of Miguel Vega and everyone in my neighborhood knows it….So here are just a few of the rules that stand out:

When I used to live with my dad, I heard him pray every morning for each of his daughters. He believes that this protects us and I have come to respect the power of intention, meditation, and prayer. I don’t know if anyone will pray over me as much as he does – so for me, he is like an angel right here on Earth: “5. Pray for her. Regularly. Passionately. Continually.” Even now, it feels good to know that someone is wishing me well. Every morning. Without fail.

My father taught me to add, subtract, multiply, and divide before I started kindergarten. He would test my math skills by taking me to the grocery store and have me compete with the cashier’s calculator. He would look at me, look at the person handling the cashier and say “I bet you my daughter can calculate the grocery list quicker than your calculator.” – 22. She’s as smart as any boy. Make sure she knows that.”

Unfortunately, we also had terrible arguments. But maybe that was a test, too. If I can argue with him, I can argue with anyone. And today I enjoy a good debate. HAHAHA!

We didn’t always get gifts. But my father took me to a magical vacation at least once month called Columbia University. This was, in fact, the only trip we could really afford at that time. I learned so much from these trips. One the one hand, I learned to appreciate trips that don’t require any money. And on the other hand I learned how to dream. “Mija. If you work hard, one day you can come here to study, too. I work with my hands so that one day you can work with your mind.” – “41. Take it easy on the presents for her birthday and Christmas. Instead, give her the gift of experiences you can share together.”

His dream for me (and for him) is to see me graduate from Columbia University one day. Perhaps, prayer and dreams do come true…

Happy Birthday to the best Tayta in the whole world.

Dad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Latinos and Whiteness: On Being Sold An Empty White Privilege Knapsack

In Uncategorized on June 13, 2014 at 11:41 pm

Sophia (@sophiagurule) on May 30th replied to my tweet about White Supremacy and Latinidad:

‪@BlancaVNYC : and yep ‪#nuncamas. this [choosing White on the Census] has haunted/shaped my life, and used against me, and I’m just done with it.”

To read more of the conversation, click here*.

For many Latinos in the U.S., race is still an elusive and misunderstood concept. This is due to many reasons but primarily for this one: Latinos have been taught that we are not a race, that instead, we are an ethnicity, and therefore have the ability/privilege to dodge the race question altogether.

The problem of the 20th century is the problem of the color line – W.E.B. Du Bois

For Latinos, the race question on a Census is confused for the color question. For the 2000 Census, even Latinos who were unmistakably White, Black, Native, or Asian, could pick “Other”. In 2010, “Other” was no longer available for Latinos, thus, forcing them to choose (what many confuse) “Color” for “Race” – and there is a difference, one that is often never unpacked for Latinos.

So, if the problem is the color line, then where do Latinos, who are taught “they have no race” fit in this now 21st century problem?

I was on twitter a few weeks ago and I had a conversation with Sophia who decided to pick “White” on the census. A young Latina woman who admits to having socially constructed “White” features, regretted this decision after seeing the New York Times piece devoted to understanding less than a paragraph in a recent Pew Report about Latinos and race (to read more about this and other pieces written in response to Latinos and Whiteness, please click here). She stated that she felt that her decision to pick White as a race was used against her because in choosing “White” as a racial category, writers – specifically Nate Cohn – oversimplified the ways Latinos identify with U.S. constructions of race. And, in all honesty, Cohn is not the only one who oversimplifies race. Thus it is very clear – no one is educating Latinos about the ways race affects our lives and how we are constantly being racialized – despite being told that Latinos are only an ethnicity.

Let’s review this again: Despite being told that Latinos have “no race” that we are in fact an “ethnicity” we forget that Latinos are in the process of racialization. Why? Because the process of racialization is not at all spoken about in mainstream conversations. This was given more ammunition when the Hispanic label came about. Labeling people Hispanic by falsely identifying a Spanish language background as our unifying factor (that’s for another piece), despite our various skin colors, made Latinos become a part of an ethnicity not a race.**

Identifying with an ethnic group, however, does not stop a population from being racialized – the process/project of becoming a race or being identified via a human classification system that uses several characteristics in order to construct a race. Although some Latinos identify as AfroLatino, others as Mestizo, White, there are still conversations and discussions of never truly fitting in a “White” box or a “Black” box and so on. As such, many people have identified Latinos as “Brown” – even though some Latinos think they are White.

While there is much scholarship in this area, there is very little of that information being trickled to the masses about how Latinos are racialized, the effects that a de facto binary racial classification system has on Latinos, and how Latinidad is completely dumbfounding race bloggers, writers, and researchers who continue to grapple with the important work of understanding the role of race and racism in the U.S.

It is for that reason that I am using the conversation I had with Sophia to explain some things here in this blog about the ongoing debate about the effects of racialization on Latinos. Here is a revised version of that conversation:

In response to the question, do Latinos have White privilege, my opinion rests on “no”. Latinos who identify as White purely based on skin color, may have SOME privileges associated with Whiteness but that does not encompass the White privilege knapsack.

Choosing “White” on a Census is not about choosing a “color”. It is a political choice – often one that is already chosen for you but the U.S. Census falsely leads us to believe that we are actually the ones “choosing”. Latinos MUST understand that by choosing White, we choose to identify with White Supremacist constructions of who we are and who we are not. Many people of color are not formally educated on what White Supremacy is so we choose “race” based only on skin color on a census that does not just believe that race is a skin color!!! This is a dilemma some Latinos face about race because we are taught that race is only determined by skin color. That’s the biggest lie. I understand that Latinos who have lighter skin color may walk into structures and situations where they are treated better than others. And even after knowing what White Supremacy is and how race is constructed, some Latinos may still choose White. But Latin American and Latino history, ancestry, the way we speak, what we defend, where we live, who our friends are all dictate life chances that we do not readily see and that are shaped by racial constructs – which often means not being treated as White people.

By no means am I asking Latinos to IGNORE privileges associated with Whiteness. Still, choosing White just because of skin color is also false! The census NEVER said that race is JUST about skin color. Yet, no one teaches Latinos about race and how to choose race on the Census. Thus, we are all being miseducated about race. We must learn that race is not just about skin color in this country. Skin color has VERY real effects – but so does our immigration patterns; so does being bilingual as educational research demonstrates that this affects our ability to progress or be detained in school; so does our income which shapes our housing opportunities leading to schools leading to universities leading to professions; it is in the areas we live in and how we are treated by the police or by our teachers just because we have a Spanish, or Kichwa, or Nauhuatl surname. And of course, this is about how White Supremacy (and those who knowingly or unknowingly maintain White Supremacy) ultimately uses our skin color as proxy for good or bad.

Latinos should remember that while some of us have privileges associated with Whiteness, this is not White Privilege. However, the only way we can understand our own racialization is to identify those areas in which some of us benefit from White Supremacy and where we don’t – a category Eduardo Bonilla Silva calls “honorary white” – and attack those areas if we are truly in the business of killing White Supremacy. This provides a more nuanced understanding of Latinidad, Latinization of race, and the racialization of Latinos, more so than the frames we inherited.

We must ask ourselves: did the government implement more anti-LATINO policies in the last ten years? YES. Do they largely affect Black and Native Latinos.? YES. Can some of us dodge those racist policies? Perhaps. But what of our brother who gets stopped and frisked? What about our sister who gets identified as a Brown woman and gets followed around in a store? What of our children who cannot identify at all with White skin color and who are left behind a grade because they are assumed to not speak English well? What about those policies that continue to stop, frisk, detain, and deport our people? While individually, some of us may be able to hide from the “race” question, as a people, and if that doesn’t sway you — as a family (if you cant see beyond your own) we may not. In the end, can we all completely dodge the race question – not as a family or a community.

So we must begin unlearning how we understand race as it affects Latinos. We continue to see race through a White Supremacist lens – Black or White – without consciously thinking about the specific experiences that come along with the label Hispanic/Latino – whether you are White, Black, or Native. The proximity to Whiteness and the proximity to Blackness are real and must be understood because this is the current system we live in. But to fully engage in the racialization of Latinos, we must begin to engage in a process of unlearning what we are told Latinos are and begin exploring what the racialization of Latinos look like. In this new understanding, we may see how Latinos fit into the color line – and why the problem of the color line persists.

For centuries now, Latin Americans and Latinos have been trying to understand the race question as it pertains to Latinidad. This historical background can prove to be useful if we understand that the racialization theories of Latinidad have often been used as tools to maintain and reproduce White Supremacy. For example, theories such as “La Raza Cosmica” and “Mestizaje” are all ways to create more distance between Latinidad and Blackness. Thus, it is not surprising that these old structures are being revisited in the U.S. – by pieces like Nate Cohn’s that insist that Latinos are becoming White. Do we not see how history repeats itself? Do we not see how Latinos are now being used as racial pawns in the battle to maintain White Supremacy, a way to add more White people to the U.S. – being told that we are White without any of the benefits of White Supremacy?

Latinos are being sold an empty White privilege knapsack.

This reproduction of old mestizaje and raza cosmica theories must be avoided at all costs. It obliterates Blackness and Indigeneity. Researchers and scholars have documented and noted Latin America’s experiment with “racial democracies” that of there being no race which has only pushed Black and Native Latin Americans further into the margins. The racial category “Black” is therefore a powerful tool that continues to remind the government that they are not doing right by its people and an identity that can be used to politically mobilize a whole community to fight for liberation of an oppressive government. We must be careful that current theorization of Latinidad and race does not exclude Blackness but instead recognize its category in the Census as a political tool to fight for liberation and make us rethink and reshape White Supremacy. We must also teach Latinos about how the Census is used as a tool to maintain White Supremacy, and now using Latinos to reproduce it. It is important here to recognize that race is not the problem – racism is. But race COULD be the problem if we continue to ignore the ways Latinos are affected by racism. In other words, Jose Diaz-Balart – yes you should care how Latinos identify racially.

For example: How can a population who is taught that they are not a race, claim racial bias, harassment, or violence? If you identify as AfroLatino – what if you are attacked because you are Black not just Latino? Currently, bias against Latinos are categorized under “ethnic hate crimes”. But if Latinos were able to claim racial bias and violence – the case for racial discrimination would empower the oppressed – not appease the oppressors in making them feel that we now live in a post-racial society.

The flip side must also be recognized and explored: In George Zimmerman’s case, Latinidad was used as a proxy for not being racist? But yet – we cannot identify as a race? This deserves one big COME ON, SON.

We must feel indicted and empowered to delve into a new language associated with the racialization of Latinos. At the heart of the Census matter – basically it does not capture how we’re being treated, displaced, raped, miseducated, imprisoned, detained, deported, stopped, frisked. And if we return to what Sophia said – her feeling about choosing White as being used against her – more qualitative research must be done to fully understand what leads Latinos to choose White. And Black. And Asian. And Native. And Other.

Filling out the census is a hegemonic practice constructed to MAKE us identify ONE particular way. Filling out the Census, choosing White, sells Latinos an empty White Privilege knapsack.

Choose race wisely, mi gente.

 

* Much love to @sophiagurule and @BlackCanseco for sharing openly their thoughts about Latinidad, race and White Supremacy. It was an awesome conversation.

** Interestingly, this is a vestige of the popular “racial democracy” experiments in Latin America, where Black was erased, and mestizaje came about, regarding most Latin Americans as “colorless” which generally is a proxy for White.

 

Media Madness: The Curious Case of the Racialization of Latinos

In Uncategorized on June 11, 2014 at 2:40 pm

Ever so often, the public becomes enraptured with Latinos. For the past two months, this rapture has involved race and Latinidad.

For those of us who have been studying the role of race in Latino identity, we find this … interesting.

Interesting because U.S. media tends to go from “WATCH OUT!! THE LATINO POPULATION IS GROWING!!!” to “Damn. Maybe Latinos are becoming White after all?”

Do you see what I am getting at here? No?

Paranoia.

So for many of us who have been studying the role of race in Latinidad, we completely see through this paranoia inflicted by the U.S. government and reproduced by media. Not too long ago, we saw articles that also “warned” the American public that the Latino population was surpassing the Black population.

So the US media goes from “WATCH OUT! THE LATINOS ARE COMING!” to “HEY, NON-LATINOS – THEY ARE GROWING MORE THAN YOU” to “MAYBE LATINOS ARE BECOMING WHITE?” – what’s worse – these sentiments become attached to policies that are discriminatory against the Latino population.

This is one way that Latinos are made into “racial pawns” in the battle to maintain White Supremacy.

It is worth monitoring these important moments when Latinos scare EVERYONE into a frenzy. The stages, as outlined above, are clear. And each stage must be tracked.

I have to say – there has been more think pieces about the “Are Latinos becoming White” question than any stage. Perhaps it’s because Nate Cohn wrote a poor summary of a two line description of preliminary Pew findings. Perhaps it’s because Latinos have been experiencing one of the most intense anti-Latino climates in recent US history. Perhaps it’s because in the age of deporting and detaining immigrants (largely Latino), banning Latino literature, ending funding for Mexican American and Latino Studies, not teaching ANYONE abut the role race plays in Latino lives, and even not allowing Latinos to choose “Other” on the Census – some Latinos know that no matter what they pick on the Census, they are not treated as White people.

Just a thought.

So here is a list of articles that have pushed back and pointed out serious flaws in Cohn’s summary (who I call – the Analyzers), who have reported and added some analyses (who I call the Reporters), and finally one social media response via the hashtag #WhatLatinosLookLike. The rest of the list includes interesting perspectives into the issue but are not directly related to or spurred by this most recent frenzy. Finally, I add two articles related to how media is now using the Asian population as racial pawns in their fight to maintain White power via an pseudo expansion of White population.

You might note that most of the Analyzers identify as Latino and only one piece has reached a major media outlet (Huffington Post). The Reporters have a larger reach and therefore larger media audience and only some of the reporters are Latinos. While this issue is important not just for Latinos to reflect and write about, we must recognize the danger in reporting, researching, and analyzing Latinidad without Latinos. I explain more about what I mean about Latinidad without Latinos here.

In my next post, I will explain more about the need for more qualitative analysis about why Latinos chose white on the Census and why we are not equally as worried about the U.S. government’s need to create more White people.

 

How Frenzy about Race Begins: Performing Fear

More Hispanics Declaring Themselves White by Nate Cohn 

Are Hispanics Joining the White Mainstream? by Jamele Bouie

 

THE ANALYZERS

New York Times Piece on Hispanics and Census Based on Study Not Yet Finalized for Public by Rebeldes

When Latin American Racial Hierarchies Meet North American Racial Classification Schemas by Hector Cordero-Guzman

The Political Consequences of the Whitening of Latinos Myth by Dr. Victor M.

Changing Hispanic racial identity, or not by Philip N. Cohen

 Are Latinos Really Turning White? by Manuel Pastor

Nate Cohn Doubles Down on His NYTimes White Latino Piece by Julio Ricardo Varela

1.2 Million Latinos Tell Census They’re Now White, and NYTimes Thinks It’s Awesome by Julio Ricardo Varela

 

THE REPORTERS

Latinos/Hispanics checking the ‘white’ box on the census won’t make them Republicans by Denise Oliver Velez 

What Is Your Race? For Millions Of Americans, A Shifting Answer by Gene Demby

The Census Can’t Fit Latinos Into A Race Box And It’s Causing More Confusion by Roque Planas

Millions Changed Their ‘Race’ on the 2010 Census From What They Said in 2000 by Richard Prince

Are Hispanics in danger of becoming white? by Mary White

THE CENSUS CAN’T FIT LATINOS INTO A RACE BOX — AND IT’S CAUSING PROBLEMS by Samantha Leal 

The identity question: More Latinos checking ‘White’ on Census By Danielle Restuccia

The number of white Hispanics shoots up: Jarvis DeBerry

The Source: What Is White? by Paul Flayhive

Who Is White? by whentheninesrolloverwhentheninesrollover.wordpress.com

Latino Whiteness? They’re Asking the Wrong Question By Victor Landa

 

HASHTAG ACTIVISM

These Images Show #WhatLatinosLookLike by Roque Planas

 

Now White folks want to to be Latino – CALL NATE COHN!

White GOP Candidate Becomes Latino Democrat, Changes Name to ‘Cesar Chavez’ by Tina Nguyen

 

Side Note and History of the Creation of the Hispanic category:

The Invention of Hispanics by Maria Hinojosa

 

Race in the US

Eduardo Bonilla-Silva on Race in America

 

How Media Whitens Asian populations:

How the Asians became white by Eugene Volokh

How The Asians Did Not Become White by Scot Nakagawa

 

 

 

 

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